El cultivo de manzana en Girona se puede ver comprometido por culpa del cambio climático

manzanaInvestigadores del IRTA han hecho una proyección hasta 2070 de cómo afectará el aumento de las temperaturas en la floración del manzano en el bajo Fluviá

Los efectos del cambio climático pueden poner en riesgo la producción de manzana en el bajo Fluviá (Indicación Geográfica Protegida “Poma de Girona”). Ésta es la principal conclusión que se extrae del estudio “Aproximación de los posibles impactos del cambio climático en la floración del manzano en el bajo Fluviá” que han realizado investigadores del IRTA (y que recientemente se ha publicado en la revista internacional Agricultural Water Management). Éste es uno de los primeros trabajos que se hacen en Cataluña sobre proyecciones de cambio climático en frutales.

Según este trabajo, la floración se verá comprometida porcentualmente y en diferente medida dependiendo de las variedades. La combinación de temperaturas frías y cálidas en el invierno es importante en la producción de flores y, por lo tanto, de frutos, como es el caso de las manzanas, porque necesitan romper la latencia completa, la cual es un prerrequisito para una efectiva y sincronizada brotación y floración. El aumento de la temperatura relacionado con el cambio climático puede conducir a una falta de horas de frío, lo que puede afectar la idoneidad en el rendimiento de algunas especies o cultivos en esta zona. Estas alteraciones climáticas pueden provocar retrasos y desordenes en la floración que pueden afectar la viabilidad de la cosecha en la región.

El cambio climático pone en compromiso esta actividad agrícola, por lo menos si se hace como ahora, y este trabajo quiere ser una ayuda a la hora de tomar decisiones”, explica el investigador del IRTA Robert Savé que, también señala que si se hicieran estudios similares dedicados a otros cultivos, como por ejemplo la viña o el olivo, los resultados también mostrarían posibles desajustes en algunas variedades a causa de los efectos del cambio climático. Estos indicadores pueden ser el primer paso para desarrollar estrategias agronómicas de adaptación.

Este trabajo se ha financiado parcialmente con el apoyo del proyecto Accua de la Fundación Caixa Catalunya y el proyecto Life-Medacc, y la ha llevado a cabo un equipo de investigadores del IRTA Mas Badia y del programa de Horticultura Ambiental.

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